Wednesday, October 10, 2012, 07:10 AM
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Posted by Administrator
We have all at one time or another been captivated by sports images. It may be Kirk Gibson's World Series Homerun, and the image of him running the bases, overcoming the pain he was in or an image of high flying Michael Jordan slam dunking a basketball with his tongue out. We have all been captured in the moment of human drama. We all like a good action photo and, in particular, if your kids play sports, you want to remember them in their toils.
Quality sports shots are somewhat difficult to come by. Most people have limited access to events to photograph them. The further away you are from the event, the harder it becomes to capture the event in a pleasing manner. Sports are an event where crowd control is important, not only for the crowd's safety, but for the players also. There is nothing more frightening than to be on the sidelines of a football game, focused on a play in the field, when out of the blue a 250 pound .
Location, Location, Location!
You can only photograph things you can see. The closer you are to someone, the better you can see them. Sports are no different. You have to get as close to what you are shooting as you can. Typically, for a photographer with a press pass, you can get to the sidelines or other similar locations. You generally will not be permitted on the playing field. Depending on the sport, you most likely will be limited to designated locations. For instance, at most Division I football games, the media cannot shoot between the two 35 yard markers. For most people, the situation is even worse. You probably don't have press access and are stuck in the stands for your shots. Get as close a possible. Even if you make it to the sidelines, you will be jostling for space with many other photographers, both still and video who have worked hard to get there and have the same job to do that you have.
You also have to be familiar with the sport to be able to capture the moment. This means knowing where to position yourself for the best action. This is critical because of angular momentum that will be discussed in the section on freezing action. Not only does it matter with the subject, but the background. Look at what is going to be behind your subject. While we will try to minimize the impact that a background has, it will still be unavoidable. So you need to position your self where the background is the most pleasing.
The Decisive Moment
Sports and Action photography is all about timing. Its about reacting. Its about being in the right place at the right time and its about execute. These are all qualities of the athlete and those of the photographer as well. Each sport has predictable and unpredictable moments. Under "Knowing your Sport", you will learn about these moments for individual sports. For instance, in basketball, you will have opportunities to photograph layups, jump shots, free throws, etc. Understanding the timing of these predictable actions allows you to capture the peak moment, when the action is most dramatic.
By knowing these moments you can anticipate the action. This helps in two ways, one it helps you with focus which will be discussed in a later segment, and secondly it helps you snap the shutter at the right time. The saying goes "If you see the action you missed it." This basically means if you wait for the soccer player to head the ball then press the shutter release, the ball most likely will be sailing out of the frame. You have to push the button before the action so that the mirror has time to flip out of the way and the shutter open and close. There is a delay between the image hitting your optical nerve and the shutter closing. You have to, through experience, learn what that time is and adjust for it.
Most sports are shot on 35mm cameras because of their portability. While some photographers have captured great sports moments with other format cameras, we will concentrate our efforts on the 35mm arena which is the most commonly used gear.
"Its not the equipment but the photographer who makes the picture" is generally a true statement. However with sports and action photography, having the wrong equipment means not getting the shots you want or need. This relates back to the section on location. The further away, the longer the lens is needed to capture the same image in the frame. Different sports require different lens lengths. For instance, basketball is generally shot from the baseline or sideline near the baseline. You generally can get good results with an 85mm lens in this situation. However, by the time the players are at mid court, you need a 135mm to capture them. If they are playing under the far goal, a 200-300mm lens is needed to fill the frame well, yet for shooting a soccer game, a 300-400mm lens is needed for just about anything useful.
Generally, for a 35mm camera, each 100mm in lens focal length gets you about 10 yards (9 meters) in coverage. This coverage means that on a vertical format photo, a normal human will fill the frame fairly well. Thus, if you are shooting American Football from the 30 yard line with a 300mm lens, you will be able to get tight shots in an arc from the goal line to mid-field to the other 40 yard marker. As players get closer, your lens may be too long. Many photographers will carry two bodies with two different length lenses for this reason.
Lens speed is also a critical factor. The faster the lens, the faster the shutter speed you can use, which as the lens grows longer, this becomes even more important. This will be covered in the freezing action section in more depth. If you look at the sidelines of any Division 1 college football game or an NFL football game, you will see people with really big lenses. These range from 300mm to 600mm or longer and even then, they may have a 1.4X converter or 2X converter on. You need fast shutter speeds to freeze action with long lenses. Every F Stop you give up requires a faster film or less freezing potential.
Wednesday, October 10, 2012, 05:59 AM
Posted by Administrator
Posted by Administrator
Market:- Market is a place where buyers and sellers meets and goods and services sales and buys producers.
Marketing:- It is a total system of business activities design to plan promote and distribute wantsatisfying goods and services to target market.
Marketing management:- It can be define as a art and science of choosing target volume and getting keeping andgrowing customer to creating delivering and communicating superior customer value.
1) Science and art
2) Choosing target market
3) Getting, keeping, growing customer (4ps)
1) Marketing Management is both a Science as well as an Art:-
Marketing Management is both a science as well as an art. The science of marketingmanagement provides certain general principles which can guide the managers in their professional effort. The Art of Marketing management consists in tackling every situation in aneffective manner. As a Matter of fact, science should not be over-emphasized nor should art bediscounted the science and the art of marketing management go together and are both mutuallyinterdependent and complimentary. Marketing Management is thus a science as well as an art. Itcan be said that-"the art of Marketing management.
2) Choosing target Market:- A marketer can rarely satisfy everyone in a market. Not everyone likes the same softDrink, automobile, college, and movie. Therefore, marketers start with market segmentation.They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might prefer or require Varying productsand marketing mixes. Market segments can be identified by examining Demographic, psychographic, and behavioral differences among buyers. The firm then decides which segments present the greatest opportunity—those needs the firm can meet in a superior fashion.
3) Marketing Mix
Marketers use numerous tools to elicit the desired responses from their target markets.These tools constitute a marketing mix Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firmuses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. As shown in Figure 1-3, McCarthyclassified these tools into four broad groups that he called the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion.Figure 1-3 The Four P Components of the Marketing Mix
Nature & Importance of Marketing Management
IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING MANAGEMAGEMENT
It would be difficult to imagine the world without marketing. But it may be equallydifficult to appreciate the importance effective marketing plays most aspect of our lives. We takefor granted the media that are largely supported by advertising. The vast assortment of goodsdistributed through stores close to your homes, and the ease with which we can make purchases.Lets consider for a moment how marketing plays a major role in the global economy , in theAmerican socioeconomic system in any individual organization and in your life.
1) Globally:- Profit and growth objectives are most likely to be achieved through a combination of domesticand international marketing rather then solely from domestic marketing.Until the late 1970s American firms had a large and secure domestic market. The onlysignificant foreign competition was in selected industries, Such as agriculture, or for relativelynarrow markets, such as luxury automobiles. But this change domestically through the 1980s asmore foreign firms developed attractive products, honed their marketing expertise, and thensuccessfully entered the US market. Imported products in some industries, such as officeequipment, autos, apparel, watches and consumer electronics, have been very successful. As aresult in recent years the U.S. has been importing more then its exports, creating large annualtrade deficits.
2) Domestically:- Aggressive, effective marketing practices have been largely responsible for the highstandard of living in the United States. The efficiency of mass marketing – extensive and rapidcommunication with customers through wide verity of media and a distribution system thatmakes products rapidly available- Combined with mass production brought the cost of many products within reach of most customers.
3)Organizationally:- Marketing consideration should be integral part of all short and long range planning in anycompany. Here’s why:
The success of any business comes from satisfying the wants of its customers which isthe social and economic basis for the existence of all organizations.
Although many activities are essential to a company’s growth , marketing is the only onethat produce revenue directly.
a) Services marketing:-
The U.S has gone through from primarily manufacturing economy to the world’s firstservice economy. As opposed to goods, services are activities that are the object of a transaction.For example transportation, communication entertainment, medical care, financial services,education and repair services account of over two third of the nation’s gross domestic product.
b)Not for profit marketers:- During 1980s and early 1990s many not for profit organizations realized thy neededeffective marketing programs to make up for shrinking government subsidies a decrease incharitable contribution and other unfavorable economic.DESIGNING DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
To design channels that satisfy customers and out of competition, an organized approach isrequired. We suggest a sequence of four decisions.
1)Specify The Role Of Distribution:- A channel strategy should be designed with in the context of the entire marketing mix.Firstly, the firm’s marketing objectives are review and than the roles assigned to product, priceand promotion are specified.Each element may have separate role or two elements may have together roles. For Example Amanufacturer of pressure gauges may use both middle man and direct mail advertising toconvince customers.
2) Select the Type of Channel:- Once distribution role is specified, the most suitable type of channel for the companies’ product must be determined. At this point a firm needs to decide whether middleman will beused in its channel and, if so, which type of middle man.
3) Determine Intensity of Distribution:- The next decision relates to intensity of distribution that is, the mo. Of middle man usedat the wholesale and retail levels. Because of the desires of prospective customers good year ound it necessary to intensity its distribution and as a result, started selling most of a tire linesthrough discount outlets.
4) Choose Specific Channel Members: The last decision concerns the selection of specific firms to distribute the product.Sometimes a company trying to market a new product, it has little choice regarding whichchannel members to use. In this case, the company goes must with those middleman that arewilling to distribute the product
Physical distribution:- Physical distribution consists of all activities concerned with moving activities the rightamount of the right products to the right place at the right time.Physical distribution for manufacturers includes the flow of raw materials from their sources of supply to the production line and the movement of finished goods from end of this productionline to final user’s locations. Middleman manages the flows of goods onto their shelves as wellas their shelves to customer homes, store or other places of business.
The activities of physical distribution are order processing, inventory control, inventorylocation and warehousing, materials handling and transportation.
Strategic Use of Physical Distribution:- The management of physical distribution can enables company to satisfy customers need bitterly by reducing operating costs. The management of physical distribution can also effect afirms marketing mix
Selecting media:- Creation of message can be discussed before selecting the advertising media in which to place ad. The advertiser must make decision before selecting media
(i) Which type of media will be used?
(ii) Which category of the selected medium will be used?
(iii) Which specific media vehicles will be used?
(1) News Paper:- As advertising medium newspapers are flexible and timely. The life of newspaper is veryshort. They are discarded soon after being read. In many cities circulation of daily newspapers isdecreasing, because of growth of internet.
(2) Television:- Television combines motion, sound and special visual effects. In T.V message can be presented bitterly. However, TV ads lack performance, so they must be seen and understoodimmediately.
(3) Direct mails:- Direct mail has the potential of being most personal and selective of all media. Becausethe direct mail goes only to the people, the advertiser wishes to contact, there is almost nowastage coverage.
(4)Radio:-Radio is low cost per thousand medium because of its broad reach. Nearly 80% of American listens to the radio daily. Radio commercials can be produced in less than a week, at acost for below T.V. Because radio makes only an audio impression.
FIVE AIM OF ADVERTISING
1.Increasing the sales of the product/service
2.Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image.
3.Communicating a change in the existing product line.
4.Introduction of a new product or service.5.
Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the companyThere are various aims of advertising but the primary aim is to attract the sales for thecompany. In fact, the ultimate aim of any organization is to enhance its profitability and it is only possible when the company may attract more sales. The second aim of advertising is to enhancethe visibility of the products and services among the consumers. In other words, advertising isaimed to increase the awareness of the customers. Advertising also plays an important role to build the image of the organization in the market. Through ads the company can build the imagewhich it wants to make in the minds of the people. Therefore, nowadays, companies spend ahuge amount of their budgets on advertising and promotional strategies.
Wednesday, October 10, 2012, 05:11 AM
Posted by Administrator
Posted by Administrator
Programming Objective-C 2.0 – Beginner book goes through Objective-C basics, OO principles, and C language syntax. Does not assume that you know C/C++ or Java. This book may be a bit difficult for absolute beginners, but if you stick with it this book will teach you the basics you need to know. This book takes you from the beginning to the point where you are learning the iPhone SDK. By the way, there is now another book with the same name, do not fall for that and make sure if you get this book it is by Stephen Kochan.
Cocoa Programming for Mac OS X – While not specifically an iPhone book this book teaches many of the principles that you need to understand in great detail, beyond that of iPhone development books that I’ve seen. The book also goes into libraries that may be included on the iPhone in the future. This book can be a difficult read especially if you actually do the exercises, but it is well worth it.
Beginning iPhone 3 Development - This is probably my favorite programming book of all time, it’s a very easy read, but still manages to explain the key concepts used. This is certainly not the most thorough programming book of all time, but combined with the knowledge contained in the two books above you should gain the knowledge required to understand Apple’s documentation and examples. This book is currently being updated to include iPhone SDK 3.0 material. UPDATE: The new edition of the book can be found here: Beginning iPhone 3 Development, all material from the old book is included.
Here are some other books that I’ve checked out that I found to be of solid value:
The iPhone Developers Cookbook – This book contains many “recipes” that you can use when developing your book, it does not go into concepts at the level of depth of Beginning iPhone Development, but I have found several times that I end up going back to this book and adapting a recipe for use within my own code. This book is currently being updated to version 3.0, and from looking at the rough cut the added formulas look extremely useful. My rating 4/5.
Learning C on the Mac and Learning Objective-C on the Mac – These books basically go together so I’m mentioning them in the same phrase. Combined they will basically teach you almost as much as Programming Objective-C 2.0, but you’ll end up buying two books instead of one and spend almost double. My rating 4.5/5 on C on the Mac, and 3.5 for the Objective-C on the mac book.
iPhone SDK Development – This is an ok book, it does not really go into anything in any depth, but it does point you in the right direction, and the sample code is very good. It covers some concepts related to web programming that are not covered within the other book.
1. The Black Art of 3D Game Programming. This is a great introduction to graphics math, and pretty much crams 3 college courses I took into this chapter. The whole book can be found here for free. It is an old book, but the math still holds true.
2. Vector & Matrix Math Tutorial If you feel that everything in the resource above is flying above your head then you probably will want to take a look at this. I normally wouldn’t reccomend a resource that brags about being "book sized", but it is very good.
iPhone Specific Resources
3. iPhone OpenGL ES Tutorial Series I don’t know if Maurice SImon is the smartest person alive, but this is the smartest set of OpenGL ES tutorials I’ve seen. A terrific resource.
4. Jeff LaMarche’s iPhone Blog Blog from one of the authors of the excellent Beginning iPhone Development book with many articles on OpenGL ES, and an ongoing OpenGL ES from The Ground Up series.
5.SIO2 Engine this is an excellent Open Source 3D OpenGL ES engine, look at the code, understand, and maybe even use the engine rather than write your own from the ground up (nothing wrong with that).
6. Oolong Engine An Open source 3D OpenGL ES Game Engine for Iphone, MIT licensed. Written by Wolfgang Engel former Rockstar Games programmer, and author of some intense DirectX books. Great to see the libraries in here for handling memory, loading 3d models, and performing math.
7. Cocos2D Iphone This is an excellent Open Source 2D OpenGL ES Game Framework for iPhone you can learn alot from going in and looking around the code. As far as Open Source frameworks go this extremely easy to use, well documented, and has an active community.
8. SDL for iPhone (SDL Version 1.3) The SDL library has been a popular open source library for probably over a decade, and has been used in many games. This is the iPhone port, and a great resource.
9.Non iPhone Resources If you use these resources you’ll need to put in some time to get things running on the iPhone, but they are still excellent.
10. Nehe Tutorials Converted To Open GL ES Michael Gorchak creator of the GluES library has put together this collection of tutorials converted from their original Nehe form. In case you haven’t heard of them the Nehe tutorials were the definitive free tutorials for learning OpenGL. Michael has done an excellent job of writing comments for these tutorials.
11. Khronos OpenGL ES Page This is the OpenGL ES "homepage" on which you will find the reference manual, and lots of examples. Not specifically IPhone, but there are some great examples here and even a complete racing game BSD licensed.
12. Khronos OpenGL ES 1.x Step-By-Step Tutorials This page is from Imagination Technologies makers of the Iphone GPU, and it contains the Khronos tutorials converted to OpenGL ES and created for the PowerVR technology. Good to lean from especially as to how they load Pod files.
13. SIO2 Engine this is an excellent This site contains 25 Great OpenGL ES Tutorials and they are extremely well paced, this was a site I learned alot from.
14. Typhoon Labs OpenGL ES Tutorials Another excellent set of OpenGL ES tutorials if you’re addicted to tutorials you might want to check these out too.
OpenGL ES 2.0 Resources
These are the OpenGL ES 2.0 resources you know so far, the Khronos OpenGL ES page above also includes information on OpenGL ES 2.0. You can see there aren’t many that i know of so if you know of some killer OpenGL ES 2.0 resources please link to them
15. The OpenGL ES Programming Book The code from this book has been updated to run on the iPhone and can be found here. Make sure you have a solid understanding of OpenGL (or OpenGL ES 1.x) before starting this book.
16. The OpenGL ES Shading Language This is a free pdf book from Khronos, and actually a really good read, and will teach you what you need to know, again don’t try this until you at least have some OpenGL understanding or your head may explode. Thanks to Bill Dudney one of the authors of iPhone SDK Development for pointing this out.
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